Psychologists say intimate relationships can switch stages at different times—moving, for example, from the stable stage to the exploratory effective stage and back again—as partners work through their insecurities and reservations. As time passes and intimacy grows, the layers of one's personality begin to unfold to reveal the core of the person. What this means is that the ice has been broken, and now they can start on a new level of communicating, where people begin to share certain attributes. Nurses could apply the theory into daily interactions with patients, as doctors could in their articulations when consulting or announcing. This theory is also guided by the assumptions that relationship development is systematic and predictable and also includes deterioration, or growing apart. Thibaut and Kelley calls this a level comparison.
The relationship then will slow considerably, and future intimacy is less likely to happen. Altman and Taylor believe that only through opening one's self to the main route to social penetration — self-disclosure — by becoming vulnerable to another person can a close relationship develop. The categories that are greatest in depth will be focused on and the shallowest category would be ignored. Onion Metaphor - Social Penetration Theory Stages The development of relationship is not automatic but rather occurs through the skills of partners in revealing or disclosing first their attitudes and latter their personalities, inner character, and true selves. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, Inc.
Basically there will be many factors that cause the stability of a relationship crumble easily, easily shaken. Progress through these stages is usually linear at first but may become cyclical later. Some of the key findings are described as follows. Depenetration Stage Unfortunately, not all relationships find eternal rest in the stable stage. What is worth noting is that unlike in real-life interpersonal relationship, disclosure reciprocity is not expected in expected in parasocial interactions, although through imagined interactions on social medias, followers do feel they are connected to the media figures. This is because people tend to take lightly and dismiss responses from strangers, who do not really matter in their lives. Contains 2 figures and 17 references.
It is also not able to be explained in the theory. Online dating Some scholars posit that when initiating a romantic relationship, there are important differences between internet dating sites and other spaces, such as the depth and breadth of the self-disclosed information taken place before they go further to one-on-one conversation Monica, 2007. At an open table, new acquaintances exchange names and share their musical preferences. For starters, the psychology team of Altman and Taylor authored the social penetration theory. Penetration theory is about laying out methods by which this can be done.
This theory also does not reveal the gender issues in the explanation. Roloff, Michael, and Gerald R. In addition, while people who self-identify as both introverted and extraverted will be less likely to self-disclose themselves, they will still generally feel more comfortable with an individual who engages in unconventional methods of self-disclosure with them first, and will tend to experience temporary relational closeness followed by de-escalation in personal experiences of relationships that began with unconventional methods of self-disclosure. Here, interactive engagements are more free willing and casual. Social penetration theory states that this process occurs primarily through.
Social penetration theory offers a framework allowing for an explanation of the potential issues. Therefore, Thibaut and Kelley also say that people use a comparison level for alternatives to evaluate their outcomes. Applications Interpersonal communication The value of social penetration theory initially lies in the area of interpersonal communication. Early studies has shown that patient disclosure is positively related to treatment outcomes. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.
Breadth in social penetration means knowing a wide variety of information about a person. Quatman, Teri, and Connie Swanson. Even further study of Altman and Taylor revealed that the males are less open than females. The relationship then will slow considerably, and future intimacy is less likely to happen. The more someone discloses to their partner, the greater the intimacy reward will be. Interaction at outer layers of personality is open, and there is heightened activity at intermediate layers of personality. Barriers to Self-Disclosure Several factors can affect the amount of self-disclosure between partners: gender, race, religion, personality, social status and ethnic background.
As for the speed of self-disclosure, Altman and Taylor were convinced that the process of social penetration moves a lot faster in the beginning stages of a relationship and slows considerably. What is worth noting is that according to a research conducted among Pakistan students, while women extensively disclose their feelings, emotions such as depression, anxiety ad fear are disclose more to male friends, because men are perceived as more capable to handle such emotions. Onion Metaphor Social penetration is perhaps best known for its onion analogy. Whether good, bad or ugly, all is out on the table. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Comparison level The first standard that we use to evaluate the outcomes of a situation is comparison level. Thibaut and Kelley's key concepts of relational outcome, relational satisfaction, and relational stability serve as the foundation of Irwin and Taylor's rewards minus costs, comparison level, and comparison level of alternatives.
The formation of social relationships: A longitudinal study of social penetration. Through self-disclosure, relationships development follows particular trajectory, moving from superficial layers of exchanges to more intimate ones. The Internet has been thought to broaden the way people communicate and build relationships by providing a medium in which people could be open-minded and and circumvent traditional limitations like time and place. Walther, 1996 What this author means is there could be deceitful or dishonest intents involved from people on the Internet. As long as the rewards outweigh the costs, information is shared. A transactional approach to interpersonal relations: Physical environment, social context and temporal qualities.
In the perspective of social penetration theory, Altman and Taylor explain some of the translation as follows: First, we more often and more quickly familiar in terms of exchange on the outermost layer of our selves. Most relationships between products and the public are causal. For example, a longitudinal study of college roommates investigated developmental changes in social penetration processes. Developed in 1973 by psychologists Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor, the theory states that relationships begin and deepen through self-disclosure. This page uses content from.